Today we are going to look at the 23rd Psalm. This is a favorite passage of many. Countless numbers of people throughout many generations have found hope in it in times of great fear and panic. I came to know that even the president George W. Bush quoted from this passage when he addressed the nation from the oval office on the evening of the 911 attacks.
In this passage, David speaks quite personally of God. He claims that the Lord is his Shepherd. This morning I believe it’s worth finding out why David said God is his shepherd and why we can say the same today. In this message I will be using the titles “God” and “Lord” interchangeably.
1. He Knows Me
Read Psalms 23:1
A. David begins his Psalm saying ‘The Lord is my shepherd’. This statement actually shook the readers of biblical times because the temptation in ancient Israel was to speak only about “our” God, (Deuteronomy 6:4) forgetting that the God of Israel is also the God of individuals. This is another reason why Jesus told them the parable about “The Lost Sheep” (Luke 15:3-7).
B. A single flock can have as few as 10 animals or as much as hundreds of them. A good Shepherd knows each and every sheep in the flock regardless of how big the numbers could be, (John 10:3-5). Likewise, David when he uses the metaphor of the Shepherd to describe God, talks not just about a designation or a name for the Lord, but the relationship between God and his covenant children.
C. The Senses Bureau of The United States says that there are at least 7.081 billion people in the world today. And the Bible says that God knows each and every one of these people by their names.
He not only knows but he cares. The Bible says God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life, (John 3:16). The Bible also says that whoever receives him (including you) receive the power to know God as personally as a son knows his father, (John 1:12).
2. He Provides Me
Read Psalms 23:1-3a
A. Sheep obviously cannot voice out their needs. Yet the shepherd naturally knows the needs of each and every animal in the flock. Likewise, The Bible says that we don’t have to pray lengthy prayers like heathens do because God our creator is aware of our needs even before we ask him, (Matthew 6:7-8).
B. The “green pastures” are the rich and verdant pastures, where the sheep need not move from place to place to be satisfied. The fields even parts of the desert would be green during the winter and spring. But in summer and fall, the sheep would be led to many places in search of food. God’s care is not seasonal but constant and abundant, (Barker, Kenneth L., and John R. Kohlenberger. “Psalms 23: The Goodness of God.” The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1994. 824+. Print.)
C. Shepherds don’t allow sheep to drink from running water (rivers etc.) because sheep while bending to drink water might also fall into it. Therefore Shepherds draw water from wells and give their sheep to drink. These wells in the middle east are very deep and require special mechanisms to draw water.
We don’t need to worry about our needs because just like the Shepherd is aware of the needs of his flock and leads them to green pastures and still waters God also is aware of our needs, as well as how and where to meet them. Once again the new testament bears witness to His divine provision because in Matthew 6:25-34 Jesus advises us not to feel anxious about our needs and assures that God will provide. There’s one condition, however. God shall not sustain the greed that destroys us, (Proverbs 30:8). He will meet our genuine needs only, (James 4:1-3).
3. He Restores Me
Read Psalms 23:3a
A. There are many characteristics that set sheep apart from other animals. They are dumb, and innocent creatures incapable of defending themselves. To add to it unlike dogs or other household animals sheep that falls on their back cannot get up unless someone roles them over and help them to stand on their feet.
B. The fate of a sheep fallen on its back is determined by many factors. The most common are natural causes such as dehydration and starvation as well as Vultures, Hyenas and wild dogs.
C. Therefore a well-informed shepherd frequently scans his flock for any fallen animals and rushes to their aid if he finds any. In case the flock is too big he watches the sky for the presence of vultures.
Needless to say just like the sheep we also are dumb and incapable of defending ourselves against Satan’s schemes, especially because of the fallen nature that dominates our behavior, (Psalms 51:5). It causes us to fall into sin and later we wish that we never did what we did. At such times it is important that we repent and allow the Lord to restore us. We must not leave room for feelings of guilt. This was evident in the life of Peter. In Luke 22:61-62 Peter repented and Jesus restored him in John 21:15-17. Judas, on the other hand, did the opposite. He took his own life because he permitted feelings of guilt in his heart instead of repenting and allowing the Spirit of God to restore him, (Matthew 27:3-5).
4. He Guides Me
Read Psalms 23:3b
A. A Shepherd knows exactly where the best feeding grounds are and leads his sheep to those places. In this verse, David tells the same about God because God directed him down paths of uprightness during his kingship and enabled him to win great battles in his commission to possess the land promised to the nation.
B. He guides us in paths of righteousness for his own glory and reputation, (Matthew 5:16). This might generate the impression that God is selfishly concerned about his own name. This is not true. Like everything else in this passage this verse also should be interpreted in the context of shepherding.
C. What honor could David have earned if he allowed the flock to go in search of food on their own and thereby walk into their death? Likewise, how can we win the lost for God if they are not convinced of his goodness expressed towards his own children? In guiding us God shows the world that he is one hundred percent dependable and faithful.
Most of the problems if not all we face in life are the results of not heeding God’s guidance. We can enjoy every little instance of our personal life, marriage, career, and ministry if we are sensitive to his leading. He knows what’s best for us and he will help to achieve our goals as long as they are pure and within the perimeter of his will.
5. He Protects Me
Read Psalms 23:4a
A. The phrase ‘shadow of death’ portrays death as a deep shadow or as deep darkness. This image of death compliments the metaphor of the shepherd because the shepherd at times has to lead his flock to feeding grounds across ravines with sharp cliffs. Apart from the risk of a slippery foot, chances are high these ravines are inhabited by wild animals like Leopards. Yet the sheep that follow in the path of the shepherd don’t need to worry about cliffs or predators because the shepherd shall fight them off, (1 Samuel 17:34-36).
B. The darkness among ravines symbolizes different seasons in David’s life. His victory over Goliath was a turning point for both good and bad. The good was he unconsciously won the hearts of people in Israel. The bad was Saul envied him so badly he wanted him dead.
C. Death followed David everywhere. In Keilah, Philistines fled before him. Next, David had to run for his own life, (1 Samuel 23:1-29). When God guided David to the throne he actually walked him through the valley of the shadow of death, (as a shepherd leads his flock to green pastures over the valley of death) and God’s hand of deliverance was over him even in the valley of death. His presence in David’s life was more powerful than the ever presented shadow of death, (1 Samuel 23:14).
Problems are not absent in life. There are certain seasons however where our very existence is threatened. The year 1997 was such a time. My father narrowly escaped death after an automobile accident and later that same year I almost lost my right leg. Today after 16 years he recalls how he sensed the presence and protection of God even as he lay on a bed unconscious, for days. Today He fears nothing because he is aware of God’s protection over life.
6. He Comforts Me
Read Psalms 23:4b
A. The rod and the staff refer to a single instrument. It has 4 major applications to the shepherd. (In addition to being a symbol of his authority over the sheep.) First to fight off animals such as Lions, Leopards, Bears, Hyenas, and Wolves that usually seek to prey upon the sheep.
B. Second, the crook part of the staff was used to gently seize the sheep that tend to run away by its legs or neck and add them back to the flock. Third, it was used to examine the sheep. The shepherd uses the rod to pull the sheep’s wool away from its skin to check for rashes, wounds, or defects.
C. Fourth to count the sheep. In the terminology of the Old Testament, this was referred to as passing “under the rod”: Here the shepherd holds his rod over the sheep and counts each and every sheep that enter by the gate. What happens if he finds out that one of them is missing? He places others at the hands of a faithful servant and takes off searching for the lost one.
The rod and the staff in all four applications brought comfort to the sheep. In our walk with God, this rod is none other than his word. I mentioned in the beginning that the shepherd’s staff is a symbol of authority over his sheep. Likewise, God’s word is a symbol of his authority over our lives which brings comfort when we voluntarily submit ourselves to it. In the light of the fourfold application of the shepherd’s rod, first, his word helps us to resist temptations, (Psalms 119:11). Second, it prevents us from making wrong decisions, (Psalm 119:105). Third, it searches our hearts, (Hebrews 4:12). Fourth it convicts sinners and leads them to the cross of Christ, (Acts 2:37-40).
7. He Exalts Me
Read Psalms 23:5-6
A. This verse describes the Lord’s faithfulness to his children even in times of great storms. Now David’s life never lacked people who envied him and desired his fall and death so earnestly. Ex: King Saul (1 Samuel 18:7-10), People who belonged to his inner circle (1 Chronicles 27:33; 2 Samuel 15:31), his own son (2 Samuel 16:11).
B. Yet Psalms 25:3 says that God exalted and honored David and put his foes into utter shame. (In the ancient days it was customary for the host of a banquet to anoint the honored guests with oil made by adding perfumes to olive oil
C. The overflowing cup literally means “My cup is an abundant drink”. It refers to a shepherd’s cup, which was a large, hollowed-out stone that could hold forty or fifty gallons and from which the sheep drank.
There’s a bumper sticker that says ‘There’s only one God so stop applying for his position’. David was a skilled warrior. A king who won the hearts of his people. A mighty man called and anointed by God. Nevertheless, he didn’t seek to retaliate or engage his enemies in his own strength. This was evident in his battle against Goliath (1 Samuel 17:34-37; 1 Samuel 17:38-40; 1 Samuel 17:45-47). He never sought to avenge his enemies, which was evident in his reaction to Saul’s wickedness, (1 Samuel 24:1-22). He believed that the battle and vengeance both belong to God, (1 Samuel 17:47; Romans 12:19). In doing so he waited upon the Lord.
Sadly this is where most of us mess up. The Lord cannot exalt us, honor us before our enemies or ensure overflowing provision in times of storms unless we save both the battle and vengeance for him. Jesus also commanded his disciples to love their enemies and pray for those who persecute them, (Matthew 5:44).
Maybe there are some of you here today who haven’t fully experienced God’s shepherdly care in your life yet and you might wonder why? I said at the beginning of this message that the Shepherd metaphor refers to God’s relationship with his covenant children. You may ask me what does it mean to be a covenant child and how can I become one?
Let me explain in the simplest way possible. A covenant is basically a conditional agreement between two or more parties. Now God’s relationship with man has always been a covenant relationship. The Bible tells us that in the Old Testament times God related to his chosen people using the old covenant which required perfect obedience to Mosaic law or works of merit. To violate the law was sinful and this caused punishment and separation from God which was amendable only through a sin offering (also called an animal sacrifice).
Animal sacrifices were supposed to accomplish
A. The worshiper’s perfection (Hebrews 10:1 … make perfect those who draw near to worship…)
B. The worshiper’s purification (Hebrews 10:2 … would have been cleansed once for all…)
C. The worshiper’s guiltlessness (Hebrews 10:2-3 … would no longer have felt guilty for their sins.)
D. The worshiper’s sinlessness (Hebrews 10:4 … to take away sins…)
However, animal sacrifices could not accomplish any of the above because, animal sacrifices were mere shadows of what was yet to come, (Hebrews 10:1) and were ineffective (Hebrews 10:1-2).
If animal sacrifices were futile why did God order the slaughter of innocent animals in the first place? God wanted his people to realize that the wage of sin is death and it is stoppable by nothing other than the blood of a man who did not know sin.
This is why God’s son Jesus was born into this world through a virgin. The Bible says that God made Jesus who did not know sin to be sin for us so that in him we would become the righteousness of God, (2 Corinthians 5:21).
Since Jesus’ death paid the penalty of our sin in full there’s no need for animal sacrifices anymore and he is the new covenant through whom we enjoy an unsevered relationship with God. Anyone who receives him (including you) has the power to become a (covenant) child of God which entitles them to enjoy God’s shepherdly care in life, (John 1:12).
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